References are ordered lexicographically by authors' last names, year of publication and title. They are labelled and called for by keys of the form [n], with n the number of the nth reference.
The first part lists the authors, date and title in that order. These entries and this order is also used for ordering the references lexicographically. The authors appear in roman, separated by comma's, except for the last two authors, which are separated by an "&". The year of the reference follows in brackets, omitting the month altogether, and then the title appears in italics after a ":". The idea is that these items are the most important ones when scanning references, and therefore deserve the most stress. If the reference is to a book, the edition may follow in the same sentence; if it is to a part of a book, information as to which part follows at the end of the first sentence. These entries are separated by comma's. Note that there is a semantic difference between page numbers in the first sentence and page numbers in the second.
In the second sentence, a title of a book in which a paper appeared
can be distinguished from a journal in which it appeared, by means of
the word "In". In case of a conference proceedings, after "In" the
editors appear, then a colon, and next the booktitle of the
proceedings; then if applicable a series name and number, and the publisher
followed by his address. The page numbers follow at the end, since in
that position they are most helpful for finding the right pages. For
electronic journals that do not use page numbers, typically an
electronic identifier (eid) appears instead; it is usually the
number n indicating that this is the nth paper in the
issue. Names of journals, series and proceedings are not italized, but
merely slanted. The reason is that the title of a paper is considered
to be a more important part of the reference.
References and links to electronic publications
Nowadays most papers are published electronically, and each paper has
a response page listing the authors, title, abstract, date of
publication and all other bibliographic information deemed relevant.
The response page contains links to the actual paper, sometimes in
multiple formats (e.g. dvi, postscript, pdf or html). Even in cases
where the electronic manifestations of a paper can only be downloaded
in exchange for a payment to the publisher, the response page of a
paper is always available free of charge. For this reason, and also
because the response page contains information that is often not in the
paper itself, and because in the future other formats may replace pdf
(just like pdf has largely replaced postscript), it is preferable to
refer and link to the response page of a paper, rather than to an
electronic manifestation of the paper in a particular format.
Almost all publishers use digital object identifiers (DOIs) as a persistent way to locate electronic publications. Prefixing the DOI of any paper with http://dx.doi.org/ yields a URI that resolves to the current location (URL) of the response page of that paper. When the location of the response page changes (for instance through a merge of publishers), the DOI of the paper remains the same and (through an update by the publisher) the corresponding URI will then resolve to the new location. For that reason a reference ought to contain the DOI of a paper, with a life link to corresponding URI, rather than a direct reference or link to the current URL of publisher's response page.
In the EPTCS style the DOI of a publication, with a life link to the corresponding URI, follows at the end of the sentence that points to that publication, after the page numbers or eid. Authors are strongly encouraged to look up the DOI of a reference and include it therein. Methods for finding DOIs, as well as instructions for adding them to references, are given here.
Often an official publication is only available against payment, but as a courtesy to readers that do not wish to pay, the authors also make the paper available free of charge at a repository such as arXiv.org. In such a case it is recommended to refer and link to the URL of the response page of the paper in such a repository as well, using a separate sentence, such as "Available at ...". Such a sentence should not be used to duplicate information that is already provided through the DOI of the paper.
Here are some examples in dvi, postscript and pdf form with the la- and bibtex source.
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