The ZX&-calculus: A complete graphical calculus for classical circuits using spiders

Cole Comfort
(University of Oxford)

We give a complete presentation for the fragment, ZX&, of the ZX-calculus generated by the Z and X spiders (corresponding to copying and addition) along with the not gate and the and gate. To prove completeness, we freely add a unit and counit to the category TOF generated by the Toffoli gate and ancillary bits, showing that this yields the full subcategory of finite ordinals and functions with objects powers of two; and then perform a two way translation between this category and ZX&. A translation to some extension of TOF, as opposed to some fragment of the ZX-calculus, is a natural choice because of the multiplicative nature of the Toffoli gate. To this end, we show that freely adding counits to the semi-Frobenius algebras of a discrete inverse category is the same as constructing the Cartesian completion. In particular, for a discrete inverse category, the category of classical channels, the Cartesian completion and adding counits all produce the same category. Therefore, applying these constructions to TOF produces the full subcategory of finite ordinals and partial maps with objects powers of two. By glueing together the free counit completion and the free unit completion, this yields "qubit multirelations."

In Benoît Valiron, Shane Mansfield, Pablo Arrighi and Prakash Panangaden: Proceedings 17th International Conference on Quantum Physics and Logic (QPL 2020), Paris, France, June 2 - 6, 2020, Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science 340, pp. 60–90.
Published: 6th September 2021.

ArXived at: http://dx.doi.org/10.4204/EPTCS.340.4 bibtex PDF
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