Projection Theorem for Discrete-Time Quantum Walks

Václav Potoček
(Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague)

We make and generalize the observation that summing of probability amplitudes of a discrete-time quantum walk over partitions of the walking graph consistent with the step operator results in a unitary evolution on the reduced graph which is also a quantum walk. Since the effective walking graph of the projected walk is not necessarily simpler than the original, this may bring new insights into the dynamics of some kinds of quantum walks using known results from thoroughly studied cases like Euclidean lattices. We use abstract treatment of the walking space and walker displacements in aim for a generality of the presented statements. Using this approach we also identify some pathological cases in which the projection mapping breaks down. For walks on lattices, the operation typically results in quantum walks with hyper-dimensional coin spaces. Such walks can, conversely, be viewed as projections of walks on inaccessible, larger spaces, and their properties can be inferred from the parental walk. We show that this is is the case for a lazy quantum walk, a walk with large coherent jumps and a walk on a circle with a twisted boundary condition. We also discuss the relation of this theory to the time-multiplexing optical implementations of quantum walks. Moreover, this manifestly irreversible operation can, in some cases and with a minor adjustment, be undone, and a quantum walk can be reconstructed from a set of its projections.

In Giuseppe Di Molfetta, Vivien Kendon and Yutaka Shikano: Proceedings 9th International Conference on Quantum Simulation and Quantum Walks (QSQW 2020), Marseille, France, 20-24/01/2020, Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science 315, pp. 48–58.
Published: 3rd April 2020.

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